(d) arising from international agreements for the protection of intellectual property which entered into force before the entry into force of the WTO Agreement, provided that such agreements are notified to the Ad Hoc Council and do not constitute arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination against nationals of other Members. In particular, TRIPS obliges WTO Members to grant copyrights including authors and other copyright holders as well as holders of related rights, namely performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasters; geographical indications; industrial designs; Layout designs for integrated circuits; patents; new plant varieties; trademarks; trade names and undisclosed or confidential information. TRIPS also lays down enforcement procedures, remedies and dispute settlement procedures. The protection and enforcement of all intellectual property rights must be consistent with the objectives of contributing to the promotion of technological innovation and the transfer and dissemination of technology, for the mutual benefit of producers and users of technological knowledge and in a manner that promotes social and economic well-being and a balance between rights and obligations. Unlike other intellectual property agreements, TRIPS has an effective enforcement mechanism. States can be disciplined by the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. The Agreement on trade aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) is an international agreement between all member states of the World Trade Organization (WTO). It establishes minimum standards for the regulation of different forms of intellectual property (IP) by national governments, as applied to nationals of other WTO member countries.  TRIPS was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) between 1989 and 1990 and is managed by the WTO. A 2003 agreement eased the requirements of the domestic market and allows developing countries to export to other countries where there is a national health problem as long as the exported medicines are not part of a trade or industrial policy.  Drugs exported under such a regime may be packaged or coloured differently to prevent them from harming the markets of industrialized countries. . .